Johnny Key

Commissioner of Education

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A Division of the Arkansas Department of Education


How Experts Define Fluency

Fluency is “[the ability to read a text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression” (National Reading Panel, 2000).

Fluent reading . . . “has to sound like the language you are reading”—“sounds like talking”—“the speed of language- not speed readers” (Shanahan, 2005).

“Automaticity—rapid and accurate word recognition—leads to fluency.

Fluency is the ability to read smoothly and easily at a good pace with good phrasing and expression—develops over time as students’ word recognition skills improve.  Students lacking fluency read slowly, a word at a time, often pausing between words or phrases; they make frequent mistakes, ignore punctuation marks, and read in a monotone. Fluent readers know the words automatically, and therefore move easily from word to word, spending their cognitive energy on constructing meaning” (Beers, 2003).

Fluency is “reading with appropriate accuracy and rate, but also with good and meaningful phrasing and expression” (Rasinski, Padak, McKeon, Wilfong, Friedauer, Heim, 2005).  



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State Standards

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Licensure & Certification

Find critical information about renewing Arkansas educator licenses, adding areas of licensure, licensing by reciprocity from other states, background checks and more.

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